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Present State of Research

Published by Carlos da Fonte, em 25.02.12

Numerous developments occurred since the presentation of the thesis, more than two years ago. I mention firstly those strictly linked to its contents. Some of these developments correct inaccuracies, as the transmission of the Scottish tressure and the verbalizations for the single-headed eagle of the Holy-Empire or even the Castilian fortress. Others complete what was already proposed but then only partially interpreted: broken designants - Cenomanum ~ Senum... - or heteronymic polysemies as in Reuss ~ Kreuz. A great amount of them amplify the interpretations of the corpus to additional heraldic traces included in the same arms, more or less conspicuous: the rest of the Hungarian partition, the tinctures for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Danish blue lions. The new circumstances lead to the reduction of the respective discretion indexes, stressing, furthermore, new semantic interactions within the coexisting traces. In the table below, the first of these developments were designated as rectifications (R), the second as additions (A) and the third as extensions (E), followed by their proper location (page and line). We list all the results gathered for our first studies, referring by Y (yes) or N (no) its state relatively to the types mentioned previously. These data may be updated as long as new elements are available and the information keeps relevance.


County of Anjou N Y Y 102 -
County of Antwerp N N Y 92 -
County of Atholl N N N 99 -
Balliol (Toponymical reference) N N N 88 -
County of Bar N Y Y 87 -
County of Barcelona N N Y 102 28
County of Barcelona Y N Y 102 32
Duchy of Bavaria N N N 108 14
Duchy of Bavaria N N N 108 n51
Duchy of Bavaria N N N 108 15
County of Beaumont N N N 99 -
Kingdom of Bohemia Y N Y 93 10
Kingdom of Bohemia Y Y Y 93 13
Kingdom of Bosnia Y N Y 113 -
Duchy of Brabant N N Y 102 -
Duchy of Brittany N N N 105 -
Kingdom of Bulgaria N N Y 109 -
Duchy of Burgundy N Y N 95 21
Duchy of Burgundy N N N 95 22
Duchy of Burgundy N N N 105 -
Duchy of Burgundy N N N 106 -
County of Burgundy I N N Y 91 -
County of Burgundy II N N Y 106 -
County of Calw N N N 95 -
Kingdom of Castile Y Y Y 109 -
Kingdom of Castile N Y Y 101 -
County of Charolais N N N 107 -
County of Clare N N N 106 -
County of Cornwall I Y N Y 106 -
County of Cornwall II N N Y 99 -
Kingdom of Denmark Y N Y 103 -
County of Diez N N N 113 -
Kingdom of England I N N N 107 -
Kingdom of England II N N N 107 -
Kingdom of England III N N Y 102 8
Kingdom of England III N N Y 102 15
Kingdom of France N Y Y 141 -
Kingdom of France N N Y 97 -
Kingdom of France N Y Y 101 -
Duchy of Guelders I N N Y 113 22
Duchy of Guelders II Y N Y 113 24
County of Guînes N N N 95 -
County of Hesse N N Y 103 -
Holy Empire I Y Y Y 95 -
Holy Empire II N N Y 90 -
County of Hoya N N N 111 -
Kingdom of Hungary N N Y 100 -
Lordship of Ireland N N N 93 -
Lordship of Ireland N N N 90 5
Lordship of Ireland N N N 90 4
Kingdom of Jerusalem Y N Y 93 -
Jerusalem (Attributed Arms) N N N 91 -
County of Katzenelnbogen N N N 110 -
County of Kent N Y Y 90 -
County of Kirchberg N Y Y 98 -
Viscounty of Labourd N Y Y 110 -
Latin Empire N N N 90 -
County of Lauffen N N Y 107 -
Kingdom of León N Y Y 101 -
Principality of Liechtenstein N N Y 105 -
Prince-Bishopric of Liège N Y Y 96 -
Grand Duchy of Lithuania N Y Y 108 -
Duchy of Lorraine N N N 89 -
Landgraviate of Lower Alsace N N Y 101 -
Duchy of Lower Austria N N Y 111 -
County of Luxembourg Y N Y 95 26
County of Luxembourg Y N Y 95 27
Kingdom of Majorca N N N 106 -
Kingdom of Mann N N Y 96 -
County of Marche I N N Y 113 -
County of Marche II N N N 113 -
Margraviate of Monferrato N N N 105 -
Margraviate of Moravia N N Y 106 -
County of Nassau N N Y 113 -
Kingdom of Navarre Y N Y 100 2
Kingdom of Navarre N N Y 100 31
Kingdom of Norway N Y Y 113 -
Norway (Attributed Arms) N N N 110 -
County of Orkney N N N 100 -
Kingdom of Poland N N N 89 15
Kingdom of Poland N N N 89 18
Portugal (Attributed Arms I) Y Y Y 96 -
Portugal (Attributed Arms II) N N Y 100 -
Quincy (Toponymical reference) N N N 106 -
County of Rantzau N Y Y 105 -
County of Rennes N N Y 98 -
Viscounty of Rochechouart N N Y 110 -
Salerno (Attributed Arms) Y Y Y 100 -
Republic of San Marino N Y N 94 -
County of Savoy I N N N 111 -
County of Savoy II N N N 99 -
Duchy of Saxony N N Y 101 -
County of Schauenburg N N Y 89 -
Canton of Schwytz Y N Y 89 -
Kingdom of Scotland Y N Y 108 24
Kingdom of Scotland Y N Y 108 21
County of Solms N Y Y 113 -
County of Spiegelberg N N N 108 -
Kingdom of Sweden Y N Y 96 -
Landgraviate of Thuringia N Y Y 98 24
Landgraviate of Thuringia N Y Y 98 28
County of Tonnerre N N N 112 -
Duchy of Trakai N N Y 112 -
County of Vermandois N N Y 92 -
Kingdom of Wales N Y Y 89 37
Kingdom of Wales Y N Y 89 38
Principality of Wallachia N N Y 109 22
Principality of Wallachia Y N Y 109 23
County of Werdenberg N N Y 101 -
County of Winchester N N N 106 -
County of Ziegenhain N N N 98 -

I refer secondly the work made outside the dissertation's ambiance, then briefly approached within the corpus, building the sampling universe of 711 heraldic traces. Since then, more than 1500 new armorial traces have been analysed by applying the parophonic methodology. Some of these blazons appear in the map that follows, although somewhat displaced to the present nationalities. They emphasize a remarkable geographical dispersion, seeming to indicate a comprehensive phenomenon and possibly its establishment with the beginning of heraldry.



Autoria e outros dados (tags, etc)

Published at 11:24

Objection I - The Clustered Plates

Published by Carlos da Fonte, em 24.02.12

Q: Wouldn't the occurrence of plates, clustered as in a pinecone during the same period studied in the thesis, refute your proposition?

A: These escutcheons, compared to grapes or pinecones by Baron Pinoteau, appear as an agglomeration of plates inside the escutcheon, in a much larger quantity than the typical eleven. The fact that they do exist is inconsistent with the solution given in the thesis, I concede, disagreeing, however, on its refutation. As these studies don't belong to the field of exact sciences but instead to human sciences, other factors must be taken into consideration, inevitably.

I believe that during the initial establishment of those symbols some indecision may have transformed the main idea. Either because the referents' metonymy has changed, as I suspect it has occurred with the carbuncle - still recalling Guimarães - or because the referent had a different motivation, as in the maravedis of Sancho I - celebrating the census paid to the Holy See - or even because the verbal accommodation leaded to an alternative perception, as it seems to be the case for the cluster of plates. Another factor to influence that hesitation, patent in the design of the seals, must have been the early birth of the Portuguese coat of arms. As there wasn't a harmonic regulation, embodied later in the institution of the officers of arms, it would still be acceptable to exhibit distinct versions for the same referent. Moreover they seem to appear first in the remote Flanders where triangular Portuguese escutcheons were documented, for example.

Those representations, although keeping the denominant in the parophony Mondeci ~ Undecim, would not produce the usual eleven plates or beads. The designant changed and, consequently, the heraldic trace also has changed, this time using Mondeci ~ M Undecim (lat. one thousand and eleven). As it was unfeasible to draw such a number explicitly, a figurative metonymy was applied: the cluster of plates. Calling it a semé, as proposed by the Marquis of Abrantes, would mean the same: an uncountable quantity.

See about this subject:


PINOTEAU, H. - Nouvelles Recherches sur les Origines des Armes de Portugal - in Genealogia e Heráldica: Actas do 17º Congresso Internacional das Ciências Genealógica e Heráldica , Lisbon: Instituto Português de Heráldica, 1989 , Vol. II, pp. 421–442.


TÁVORA, L. G. de Lancastre e - Apontamentos de Armaria Medieval Portuguesa VII: Da Origem das Armas de Portugal (à Guisa de Recensão) - Armas e Troféus, Instituto Português de Heráldica, Lisbon, V Série - Tomos III e IV, pp. 49–97, 1982–1983.

Autoria e outros dados (tags, etc)

Published at 15:16

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