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Terminology

Published by Carlos da Fonte, em 09.04.12
 

This terminology is provisional by nature and will be added and improved following the progress of the investigation. Only neologisms and fresh acceptations used during our work will be included here whereas common heraldic and auxiliary definitions will appear exclusively in the Portuguese version.

 

We must remember the final objective of extending these definitions to Visual Semiotics as a whole knowing that, for example, the triangular shape of the blazon's field will not fit adequately any syntactic generalizations. The vast majority will be hybrids of Heraldry and Semiotics. The words are ordered without implying that they will follow the alphabetic order corresponding to the various successive articles. We follow above all the significance of every formal definition already published, adapting the resulting text from the Portuguese version. Whenever possible, heraldic examples are included, namely those appearing in the dissertation, the Portuguese heraldry or this blog.

 

abbreviation - Homosemic accommodation suppressing graphemes during verbalization.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of France)

accommodation - Sequential adjustment of phonemes and graphems associating the denominant with the designant.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: Jerusalem ~ Je ruse la haine → Jeruselahaine → Jerusehaleine Jerusalem)

action - Verbalizing specification denoting accomplishment or state.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Denmark)

addition - Inclusion of phonemes or graphemes during the transformation denominant → designant.
(e.g. attributed arms of Sagremor: Ungaria ~ ungo area, we may see an “o” in the designant, absent in the denominant)


adjective - This terminology was abandoned in favour of "qualification". 


adobe - Specification of this architectural artifact usually represented by the heraldic trace of a billet.
(e.g. arms of the County of Burgundy II)

affinity - Or semantic affinity, proximity between the meaning of two or more words, as in synonymy or hyponymy. 
(e.g. arms of the Republic of San Marino: Rocca (ita. rock) ~ penna (ita. rock), takes place by synonymy)

agglutination - Association of two or more words to build the denominant or designant.
(e.g. arms of the County of Beaumont: Beaumont-sur-Oise ~ bau mont sur oise, joining bau mont into Beaumont)


animal fraction - Specification of a part of an animal.
(e.g. arms of the County of Hoya) 


anomaly - Ambiguity or semantic reinterpretation that differs from the primitive purpose.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Castile: the castle in the blazon may have come from Castilla (cas. Castile) ~ castillo (cas. castle) or alternatively from Burgos (cas. Burgos) ~ burgus (lat. fortress)) 

anthroponymic metonymy - A referent's metonymy using the proper noun of a person.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal)

architecture - Specification showing buildings or their elementary parts.

arms of transmission - The heraldic trace determined by inheritance, usurpation or transference from one person to another.
(e.g. arms of Eça)

arrangement - Interaction between heraldic elements, allowing one to be visually included within the other.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Bavaria)

aspect - A distinctive supplementary visual feature within a figuration already in use. 
(e.g. arms of Edward the Confessor: the fleurs-de-lis at the tips of the cross are justified by the condition of king and by the ornaments in his crown, not by ce Roi (frc. this King) ~ crois (fra. cross))

astronomy - Specification of heavenly bodies and their interactions.
(e.g. arms of the Landgraviate of Thuringia)

attitude - Characteristic posture assumed by living figurations or their parts.

bird - Specification of this class of animals.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Poland)

black - Specification of a blackish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the County of Werdenberg)

blue - Specification of a bluish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Burgundy)

bog - Toponymical specification of this geographical feature.
(e.g. arms of the County of Cornwall II)

clear - Specification of a whitish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the Principality of Wallachia)

cock - Specification of this bird.
(e.g. arms of the County of Ziegenhain)

complementation  - Or complementary trace, a non-metaplasmic influence for the creation of a heraldic trace.
(e.g. attributed arms of Portingale: the red stands for wood in a gaming table)


composition - Interaction between meaning(s) given during specification and the resulting heraldic trace. 
(e.g. attributed arms of Salerno: the designant sal (lat. salt) eremum (lat. desert) generates a compound polysemy because sal gives “salt” (white), whereas eremum gives “hot” (bezant = Sun), “wide” (solid field) and “arid” (evaporation of the water by the Sun, justifying the plot))

concealment - Interaction among semantically linked heraldic elements in such a way that some can be seen whereas others are displaced, concealed outside the shield.
(e.g. arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)

covering - a heraldic element inscribed inside the perimeter of another or else dividing it internally.

(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Burgundy)


cup - Specification of this container.
(e.g. arms of the Municipality of Coimbra)

denominant - The direct or indirect (metonymical) naming of a referent.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: denominants like the capital of the domain - Sion - or the name of the territory - Jerusalem - emanate from the referent, the motivation behind the arms: the King of Jerusalem and successors)


designant - Word(s) derived from the denominant's metaplasms used to build a subset of heraldic traces in a coat of arms.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the designant of Sion (frc. Sion) is cions (fra. offspring), responsible for the crosslets around the main cross)

designant's hesitation - Anomaly where a designant in the primitive coats of arms enables several interpretations in order to build the corresponding heraldic trace.
(e.g. arms of the Principality of Wallachia)

discretion index - Or k, a measure of parophony acceptable when between “0” and “1”, unacceptable otherwise.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: in Jerusalem ~ Je ruse la haine, k = 0.50 and in Sion ~ cions, k = 0.00) 

eight - Specification of this quantity.
(e.g. arms of the Landgraviate of Thuringia)

eleven - Specification of this quantity.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal)

emblazonment - Textual description of heraldic elements and their corresponding arrangement in the blazon. 
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: “argent, five escutcheons in cross azure, those in the flanks turned to the centre, each charged with eleven plates of the field, set 3, 2, 3, 2 and 1”)

equal - Geometric specification denoting similarity.
(e.g. attributed arms of Portucalis)

evocative arms - Heraldic trace supposedly determined by a deed that justifies the granting of arms.
(e.g. armas of Cão of Diogo Cão)

exchange - Class of anomalies that appear intentionally or accidentally by confounding an heraldic trace which derives from the designant, with another; for example: hesitations, profusions, sublimations and divergences.
(e.g. arms of the Principality of Wallachia)

extension - Transmigration where the same denominant introduces its heraldic trace in more than one blazon.
(e.g. arms of the Counties of Diez, Nassau and Solms)

figuration - A heraldic element of natural, artificial, geometrical, symbolical or fantastic motives, that doesn't touch the edge of the shield but fortuitously.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: escutcheons and bezants are figurations)

fortress - Architectural specification of this military building.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Castille)

four - Specification of this quantity.
(e.g. arms of the Order of Christ)

gender hesitation - Anomaly where the aspect of sex of an animal is confounded, negleted or unknown within the primitive coats of arms.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Lorraine)

geometric hesitation - Anomaly where the separation, pattern or figuration is confounded, negleted or unknown within the primitive coats of arms.
(e.g. arms of the Viscounty of Rochechouart)

geometry - Specification of geometric figures and dimensional relations or quallifications.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Hungary)

gold - Specification of this metallic material. 
(e.g. attributed arms of Norway)

grapheme - The elementary symbolization of writing using letters and signals, simple or compound, representing a non-exclusive and well determined phoneme.

(e.g. “Scythe” is graphemized as: | sc | y | the | )

green - Specification of a greenish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Saxony)

heap - The geometric specification of a disposition; pile.
(e.g. arms of the County of Cornwall II)

heavenly body - Specification of a star, planet or other celestial object.
(e.g. attributed arms of Salerno)

heraldic element - Each family of visual components described or [implied] in blasoning:
(e.g. arms of Sousa: gules (tincture) four (number) crescents (figurations) conjoined (disposition) [in cross (orientation)] argent (tincture) [at the fesse point (placement)]

heraldic plot - Logical association among the various semantic levels, transforming the whole of the blazon into a consistent visual narrative. 
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: represented as the Holy Sepulchre with the Gospels resting on the epitaph of Christ, a Greek cross)

heraldic trace - Each meaningful or redundant subset of visual elements emblazoned in a coat of arms.
(e.g. arms of Monck of Ballytramon: the heraldic trace for the family semantic level is a dragon (figuration) sable (tincture))

hydronymic metonymy - Referent's metonymy naming streams and expansions of water in the local geography.
(e.g. arms of the Canton of Schwytz)

hyperthesis - Metaplasm by transposition, exchanging phonemes in different syllables.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal)

hyponymy - Accommodation by affinity between words where the hyponyms are various restricted meanings exemplifying the other, the hypernym.
(e.g. arms of the Municipality of Stockholm)

imitation - Complementation which deliberately repeats a heraldic trace already present in another blazon, not necessarily by heraldic transmission.
(e.g. attributed arms of Jerusalem)

immanence - A complementary heraldic trace, implied or ignored in emblazonment, representing well-known typical characteristics of a specification.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the specification of “Gospels” produces four (Evangelists) white (parchment) rectangles (books) with a cross (ornamental cover))

implied quotation Association of a literary narrative to all visual elements of a blazon. 
(e.g. arms of Caminha: Book of Judges chapter XVI, verse 3)

insertion - Regular intercalation of figurations in the boundary of narrow compound separations or other analogous figurations, frequently exceeding their thickness.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Scotland)

institutional arms - Arms corresponding to impersonal organized entities.
(e.g. arms of the Knights Hospitallers)

interaction - Class of complementation arising by the mutual influence of heraldic traces as in the case of resonances, concealments, arrangements and insertions.

iron - Specification of this metal usually represented by the tincture argent.
(e.g. arms of the Landgraviate of Thuringia)

islet - Toponymical specification of this landform.
(e.g. arms of the Municipality of Stockholm)

linguistic hybridism - Verbalization where two different languages are used both for the denominant and designant. Usually, it doesn't mimic a real phenomenon in heraldry but may be used used as a methodological resource when the original information is unavailable.

metaplasm - Each transformation within the denominant to build the designant.

neologism - Morphemes combined during accommodation in order to create an unknown word. 
(e.g. arms of the County of Vermandois)

nickname - Descriptive and informal anthroponym added to a given name.

night - Specification of this astronomical phenomenon.
(e.g. arms of the Landgraviate of Thuringia)

ninth - Quantitative ordinal specification.
(e.g. arms of the County of Barcelona)

notoriety - Specification of a proper noun.
(e.g. arms of the County of Kirchberg)

number - Heraldic element determining absolute or relative quantities of compound separations, figurations and their parts.
(e.g. arms of Edward the Confessor: “... four martlets and another in base” through Seint (ano. Saint))

number hesitation - Anomaly where the quantity of a figuration is confounded, negleted or unknown within the primitive coats of arms.
(e.g. arms of the County of Guînes)

omission Quantitative ordinal specification. 
(e.g. arms of the Edward the Confessor: ce Roi (frc. this King) ~ crois (fra. cross), the letter “e” and the corresponding phoneme vanish)

opposition - Sematization process where one meaning is clarified by the presence of its opposite.
(e.g. attributed arms of Portucalis)

orientation - A complementary element tending to rule the direction of figurations and separations using other geometrical elements.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the crosses are oriented with axes defined by the upper edge of the shield)

out - Geometrical specification denoting position or omission.
(e.g. arms of the County of Hoya)

overlapping - A heraldic element covering and surpassing the perimeter of another.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the Greek cross specified by Je ruse la haine is hidden by the squares (representing the Gospels) atop the cantons, giving birth to a cross potent)

pairing - Arrangement of each phoneme(s) or grapheme(s) in the denominant with its best match in the designant so as to optimize the metaplasmatic transformation.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: Sion ~ cions pair as S/c, i/i, o/o, n/ns )

parophony - Association by phonetical resemblance between denominant and designant. 
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of León: Pelagium (lat. Pelagius) ~ Pelagium (lat. purple) (the symbol ~ reads “metaplasms into”))

pattern - Regular repeated drawings occupying the shield, its separations or the interior of figurations.
(e.g. arms of Vasconcelos: show a pattern of vair along the bars)

phoneme - Systematic distinction of meaningful audible elements in a spoken language.
(e.g. “Scythe” may use the following  phonemes (X-SAMPA): | s | a | I | D | )

placement - Location where a heraldic element is drawn.
(e.g. attributed arms of Salerno: the Sun is in the middle of the shield)

primitive heraldry - Arms displaying the original semantic intention.

prop - Complementary heraldic trace used to justify another; strictly, it's not justified by the designant.
(e.g. attributed arms of Portucalis: the bezant (the Sun) is a prop that highlights a blue Heaven (as a day star) and Hell (through heat))

proportionality - The same figuration shown simultaneously in distinct sizes or different ones that appear out of their comparable dimension in nature.
(e.g. arms of Gouveia: the roundels at the dexter partition are smaller than the roundels at the sinister) 


qualification Characterizing specification which usually needs a metonymization to be transformed into a heraldic trace. 
(e.g. attributed arms of Portucalis)


quantity - Direct or indirect specification class of a numeral usually represented by the heraldic trace of number.
(e.g. arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)

red - Specification of a reddish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the County of Barcelona)

redundancy - When designants build the same heraldic trace or none particularly. 
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: Porto callis (lat. I bring paths), where “bring” is redundant with the shield which “brings” the blazon)

referent - The person, territory, institution or group that induces the creation of a coat of arms.
(e.g. arms of Monck of Ballytramon: Sir Charles Stanley Monck, 1st Viscount Monck)

referent's metonymy - A metonymy which transforms the referent into denominant.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: the city of Coimbra, the river Mondego, the residence in the Alcáçova and the name of the king all metonymize the referent: D. Afonso Henriques)


sable - Specification of this animal.
(e.g. arms of the County of Werdenberg)

semantic level - Each meaningful association of metaplasms and heraldic traces in a coat of arms.
(e.g. arms of Monk of Ballytramon: Monck  ~ men seek (a dragon in the crest))

semantic trace - Heraldic trace with a meaning imparted by the designant.

sematization - Attempt to build visual meaning departing from the word(s) of each designant.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the designant exequies (frc. obsequies) is represented in the blazon with a white colour (of stone) but it could have been a tomb, a tombstone, a corpse, etc.)

separation - Geometrical division of a shield in distinct areas using tinctures and lines that touch its edge. 
(e.g. attrributed arms of Sagremor: the white canton is a separation. Note that we consider bordures and orles as figurations)

shilling - Specification of this unit of currency.
(e.g. attrributed arms of Jerusalem)

ship - Specification of this watercraft.
(e.g. arms of the County of Orkney)

species hesitation - Anomaly where the figuration of an animal or plant species is confounded, neglected or unknown within the primitive coats of arms.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Bulgaria)

specification - Choice of a visual representation (botanical, zoological, geometrical, etc.) best suited for the designant and the heraldic plot. 
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: the escutcheons are specified by the interpretation of the designant illud defenso (lat. I defend it) and affected by the military plot of the whole)

stages of metaplasmic menonymization - Iterative sequential steps which organize the semantic building of coats of arms; respectively: referent, referent's metonymy, verbalization, accommodation, sematization, specification, heraldic trace and complementation.

stalk - Specification of this botanical fraction.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Burgundy)

steel - Specification of a metallic material usually represented in white or by a silver tincture.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Mann)

strength - Qualifying specification.
(e.g. arms of the Municipality of Guimarães)

three - Specification of this quantity.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of England)

thunder - Meteorological specification usually metonymized as a lightning.
(e.g. arms of the County of Tonnerre)

toponymy - Specification denoting any natural geographical feature.
(e.g. arms of the County of Cornwall II)

transformation - Class of metaplasmatic phenomena where a phoneme is substituted by another.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of León: Galiza ~ caliza, switches a “G” and a “c”) 

transmigration - Class of complementary phenomena arising in distinct blazons that share representations or concepts.
(e.g. arms of the Counts of Marche: initially inspired by Marche ~ marches (frc. steps of a stairway), generating a barry, later through Marche ~ marche (frc. walk), by three lions passant in a row on a bend (a path))

transposition - Class of metaplasmatic phenomena where two phonemes exchange places.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Portugal: Mondeci ~ undecim, where the two “em” switch positions)

vairs - Specification of this heraldic pattern.
(e.g. arms of the Viscounty of Rochechouart)

vegetal fraction - Specification of a part of a plant.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of France)

verbalization - The expression of denominants / designants with languages suiting their environment.
(e.g. arms of the County of Burgundy: an eagle under the Holy Empire through Arar (ale. Saône) ~ Aar (ale. eagle), then billetty under France through Doubs (frc. Doubs) ~ adobes (frc. bricks of adobe))

walled yard - Architectural specification circumstantially represented by a bordure.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Burgundy)

X-SAMPA - A phonetical alphabet used universally, standing for Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: Jerusalem will be transcribed by the symbols: | Z | e | r | y | z | a | l | E | m |)

yellow - Specification of a yellowish coloration.
(e.g. arms of the Duchy of Burgundy)

zero - Specification of this quantity.
(e.g. arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)

zoology - Class of specification denoting animals or their fractions.
(e.g. arms of the Kingdom of England)

Autoria e outros dados (tags, etc)

Published at 19:41

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© Carlos Carvalho da Fonte 2009-2017


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